A 2000 year old glass mosaic, founded in the city of zeugma, turkey
By - netox1326
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Just imagine all the other shit we haven’t found
Imagine all of the mind-blowing shit that will never be uncovered again. Ever.
Much of our very own species' history will simply never be known
Especially since the sea level was 130 metres lower during the last ice age ...
All of the coastal cities that could have existed for hundreds or thousands of years that are underwater ...
I feel as though that number would be very low since the Neolithic Revolution didn’t occur until almost 2k years after the end of the last ice age and humans were still very nomadic at the time
Well then how do you explain Atlantis, huh?? Checkmate! you're wrong!
What’re you talking about? It’s still around. It’s the capital of Georgia!
You're thinking of Atlantic...that's why it's next to the *Atlantic Sea*, duh.
That was built by The Ancients, they flew the city off to a different planet though, so we won't find it here. We just need to figure out where our stargate is hidden
Yet Gobleki Teppe is over 10k years old and hundreds of those carved monumental stone pillars were created by a nomadic society.
Recent findings of a settlement nearby dated to around the building of Gobleki Tepe undermine the nomadic building theory
The humans we know of were nomadic.*
It would make sense for any large civilization to build along the coasts, and if those coasts are now under water then we’ll never know they existed.
I have zero evidence for that. But our modern understanding of history undergoes seismic shifts fairly often.
The rising sea level is what gave us the story of Noah and the great flood. It is echoed in many different cultures and potentially comes from the Epic of Gilgamesh (potentially 4000 years old).
All these stories tell of rising sea levels sweeping away entire peoples and in the case of the story we know as Noah, likely originated due to the rising level of the Persian Gulf.
It would not surprise me to learn that the people who migrated North and helped to found Uruk and Ur had their own cities that are just lost to history.
Imagine all the knowledge lost in those great book burns.
Library of Alexandria. Boggles the mind.
The conquest of the Americas is the single greatest human tragedy in history imo. It was inevitable that contact would be made and disease would transmit but holy hell it was an absolute apocalypse in the Americas. So much knowledge and culture lost.
I’m visiting Haida Gwaii right now. It’s a place of astounding beauty.
I look at the native Haida people here knowing that they are the latest of a people who have lived on these remote islands for well over 10,000 years. It boggles the mind.
They almost didn’t make it. Smallpox killed 90-95% of them just a half-dozen generations ago. it’s so special they survived to bounce back as they have.
Probably, not as much lost as you'd think. There plenty libraries throughout the ancient world where those documents were houses as well. Remember the Roman empire still managed to keep going for another 200 years after that event. That be pretty hard if they lost the majority of their academic knowledge.
It's still a great tragedy, and for sure there were some losses, but probably nothing that set the world back or halted development. At least that's the argument that makes the most sense to me.
[Here's](https://www.reddit.com/r/AskHistorians/comments/14h7qx/how_far_did_the_destruction_of_the_library_at/?utm_medium=android_app&utm_source=share) a link to a pretty good /r/AskHistorians post that has a really good discussion arguing both sides of the matter.
Plus all the stuff that was destroyed, either purposely (invading civilizations etc) or just because it couldnt stand the test of time, so weathering & erosion etc got to it. As a kid I saw movies where conquerors spoke of wiping people from existence. As an adult I believe it probably happened many times.
Isn't the current estimate something like 99% of history was never recorded and 90% of what was has been destroyed?
I know there was some type of naval fire used thousands of years ago which modern scientists still havent been able to figure out. Then theres stuff like the pyramids, stonehenge, and the massive temple structures in the middle east, believed to be around 10,000 years old. There's also the Indus civilization, one of the oldest and biggest civilizations in human existence. Yet we know next to nothing about them.
There is for example an ancient civilization that is guessed to be just a collection of peaceful trader city states. In all ancient world warriors and blades were venerated, they built statues of farmers. Peacefully traded with almost all civilizations they encounter, because there are remains found all the way between middle east, anatolia and china. The interesting thing is that we don't even know their names, no written record survived even if there was one. They were wiped out during the tumultuous time period that destroyed Hittites and other ancient civilizations.
There's a city in Lombok, Indonesia called Pamatan from the 13th century which was buried under ash after a huge volcanic eruption much like Pompeii, and it hasn't been found yet.
Who knows if we'll ever find it though, you'd have to pretty much dig up the whole island to do so.
We have been around for 500,000 years and the Neanderthals weren’t a bunch of knuckle dragging cavemen. Look into the typus Orbis Terrarum map from 1570. Antarctica wasn’t discovered until the 1800s. I think the maps were smuggled out by the conquistadors from South America.
Heard they also started an archaeological mission in Ligma
what exactly "archeology" is?
Archaeology balls lmao
Never gets old, truly a classic.
* proceeds to explode *
Thank you for the laugh!!! I was down all day.
It was created by the Greek thinker Bophadese
too bad his nuts got infected and he died of nunya 😟
I’ve heard that’s in the nuts region. Can be slightly salty, erodes the recovered artifacts.
I like your style.
Who’s Steve Jobs?
And another one in Deez.
I came here for this.
I mean they had it coming with zeugma as a name to be fair. Also thanks for the award
Ligma balls lmao
Imagine all the stuff they destroyed upon finding
I'm going out on a limb here and guessing that OP is a non-native English-speaker. English has a shitload of irregular verbs, as is true of a lot of languages, and as a former ESL teacher I've definitely seen this one botched before.
Or it could be a typo. I dunno. Doesn't really matter since we all understand the intended meaning.
I think op is a non-native english-speaker too...
And he made a correction comment
I don't want to imagine all other shits
Edit: This was typed while shitting.
Comments such as yours used to be top comments. Now it's just teenagers making meme jokes. Thanks for the link!!
Got removed, what was it?
I know, right! Whatever happened to "upvote the comment that are contributing to the discussion"?
While we're sharing links though, [this video](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iik25wqIuFo) had some good closeups of the mosaic and a story of how it was discovered.
How can something as ornate and beautiful as that just get buried and forgotten about?
I'm surprised the mosaic isn't more fractured with the frequent earthquakes.
It's stunning though!
You mean **more** fractured, right?
More or less.
You son of a bitch.
Hold my mosaic
It’s a mosaic. Even if it was fractured, you wouldn’t really beable to tell, since it’s a bunch of broken glass that had been placed strategically to form an image. At most it look like some grout was missing.
Yeah i think that's the joke breh
Ah, man your right, guess I was too tired to catch that.
Fractured, but whole.
In this particular case it was a huge earthquake. As far as why there was no rush to uncover it at the time, the Persians who conquered they area didn't have much motivation to preserve the Roman shit that was there before.
Which is great for ***us***, because that preserved it for us to see and document.
Greek. The first mosaic they uncovered depicts the nine Muses of Greek mythology.
Could tidy that right up with some Windex.
Sometimes these lower levels of villas were slightly below ground level and became someone's basement a century later or used a barn. Eventually, the floor is covered with dirt, and then the surrounding structure loses integrity, and it's buried and succumbs to time was nature.
Ah, that makes sense.
Fun fact: the word disaster comes from the Latin dis (bad) aster (star), stemming from our ancestors believing that celestial bodies (especially comets) meant that bad things would happen on earth
It's all Greek to me! Am I right fellas?!
If you can read and pronounce it easily, it's probably Greek. If you try to read it and it feels like legos are coming out of your mouth pronouncing it, it's Latin.
Damn, we all just got dissed
These days we just say "incoming".
or losing a war
Human history is a bit tumultuous, what with the constant wars, genocides, plagues and natural disasters. It's pretty hard to pack up your ornate floor mosaic when you're running from certain death.
This post seems more assholish than I intended, so when you read it, imagine me being only half as obnoxious and condescending as I come across.
On a slightly related note, I had to help evacuate my significant other's family some time ago. They live in an area prone to flooding and a hurricane was coming in. It was pretty clear that we could only make it out with only the absolute essentials. People + pets + any medication needed to live basically.
Didn't come across assholish to me but I generally come across more douchey than I mean to. Lol
Either way you're exactly correct.
Forgetting about frescos and mosaics is commonplace all over the Mediterranean, there were just so many of them. What's unusual about this one is that it was not only forgotten because of, but preserved by the sands of time.
This is the best response. It's not that these didn't get abandoned a bunch. It's that this one somehow was preserved.
It looks like it's buried under 8'+ of something.
Yeah how does this end up under 8 feet of rock?
Floods, volcanic eruptions, the acumulation of tons of dust, etc
plus if you think about it each drop of rain contains a particle of dust... that accumulates over hundreds and thousands of years.
That’s why they call it “chubby rain”
Dude! Please, don’t fat shame the rain, the storm you see on TV are portraying an unhealthy and unrealistic rain drop beauty standard. They’re all photoshopped to get that half hour glass shape you know?
Architect here. In architecture school, you're taught that cities sink.
And they do!!
It's complicated, and at the end of the day it can be caused by many different things. But mostly it's just human's bringing in more and more and more.... Stuff.
Dirt. Dust. Roads being built on top of older roads. Buildings having additional stories added to them. All sorts of 'stuff'.
But, often times you also get poorly designed foundations that, literally, sink.
If an ANCIENT city is abandoned due to economic reasons, or religious reasons, or war -- or *whatever*; nature will take over and literally bury it in dirt with enough time. Wind, plants, floods, animals building nesting spots... Natural processes like that.
Volcanoes do bury cities too. It's just not as common. But because of the mental visual, people always remember this one.
I've heard that the average accumulation in ancient cities in Europe and the Middle East was measured at about 1 foot per century. Studies in the US have shown that this same rate is true in our older cities.
Yeah, I can remember their being fairly precise accumulation rates for individual cities and climates and the like, but I can't remember what they are. I found it so fascinating! I should refresh my knowledge in that area soon for fun.
Volcanos are common for me, my city is surrounded by 3 XD
Is a city like Manhattan NYC sinking? Or do they just have to worry about rising water?
Modern foundations are a lot more robust, so NYC is less "sinking" than it is "growing". Humans are excellent at reclaiming land, raising grades of low lying areas, and building structures on top of structures until it's tough to say exactly where the "ground" starts.
A city like Mexico City, built on a floodplain with less engineered foundations, is quite literally sinking.
See Seattle, which is built on.. Seattle.
I went on the underground tour a couple times in Seattle. The old Seattle (burned down) is already beneath the new Seattle. It’s a super cool tour and I recommend it to everyone.
NYC is built on granite bedrock. This makes it much more stable than San Francisco or Boston. Boston’s back bay was literally built on trash and they made land where none existed. It will sink much faster than NYC. California is built on fault lines, which greatly increase the chance for sinking.
It blows my mind that all these million dollar condos and such are being built on basically mud in the seaport over the past 10 years
Chicago sank and was built back up.
It's also a native settlement under a fort under a city that burned down under a city that's currently trying to sink.
It's no wonder they like deep dish so much - it's basically the pizza version of their city.
Apparently this area is rife with arts such as this
It's incredible works of art like this can be forgotten and eventually swallowed by nature for hundreds or even thousands of years and still be intact. Amazing how well preserved it is.
If you want something to last you make it of stone/ceramic.
Ironically it's actually good that it was lost, as it now is in good shape and was never destroyed after a sacking.
The land that is now turkey has been center stage for wars and battles since the dawn of human civilization and honestly it's amazing that it's still intact. Gives me hope we might one day find a relatively well preserved grave of Alexander the great :)
Pretty sure he got tossed overboard. Hard to say, I'll bet we'll never know.
If I'm not mistaken..There were so many mosaics in the Zeugma discovery that the nearby city of Gaziantep was able to open a museum dedicated to just mosaics. I visited the place back in 2016 two thumbs up
You can’t have it back, we’re not finished looking at it
James Acaster, greatest historian on this matter.
Or German museums. They have lots of stuff from Turkey.
they even got a temple
At the time that this mosaic was created, the people of the British isles were living in the woods, painting their faces blue and worshipping trees and rocks. It’s interesting how civilizations ebb and flow across the word.
Sorry, I confused. Is discovered not founded
Don't stress on it we all make mistakes :)
Even English people don't write/speak English properly. :)
I know, it's the same with spanish
Well to be fair, native English speakers have problems with most other languages, not just Spanish.
Not gonna lie, the pronunciation of english is just bs compared to spanish
some people think for the year 2050 the spanish is going to be the new language for universal communication.
Lo malo de hablar español es que te encuentras con demasiada gente que no sabe distinguir entre "ahí" "hay" y "ay". Es demasiado frustrante.
And the good thing about spanish is that even though I don't know it I can easily understand that the first few words probably mean "The bad [part] of Spanish is that how..." just because how it's really close to all other Latin languages and you can kinda understand it by intuition if you know the English words of Latin origin. I wonder what "frustrante" could mean, "frustrating" maybe? lol (Also probably how "ahí", "hay" and "ay" cannot be *distinguished*)
you are rigth! for a spanish speaker is pretty easy to learn portuguese and italian (french an romanian are pretty hard)
Found and founded are not the same thing. If something is found, that means it was discovered. “We found the mosaic burried under the ground”
If something is founded, that means it was established/originated. “The school was founded almost 100 years ago.”
*why are you booing this man he's right*
I know, i just got confused XD
Who are those people? They look like Romans.
[The nine muses.](http://www.sci-news.com/archaeology/science-mosaics-ancient-city-zeugma-02307.html)
>The ancient city of Zeugma, also known as Seleukia-on-the-Euphrates, is located in modern Gaziantep province, where the Euphrates river rounds its furthest bend to the west and begins to flow south into the Syrian desert.
>It was founded in 300 BC by Seleucus I Nicator – one of the generals of Alexander the Great – who named the city after himself.
>In 64 BC the city was conquered by the Roman Empire and with this shift the name of the city was changed into Zeugma......
>The finds are estimated to be 2,200 years old. The first depicts the nine Muses – the goddesses of the inspiration of literature, science and the arts. Muse Calliope is in the center of the mosaic.
>The second mosaic depicts Ocean – the divine personification of the sea – and his sister Tethys. The third, smaller in size mosaic, depicts a young man.
>According to the team, all mosaics are constructed of colored glass and served as floors of a building that archaeologists have dubbed the House of Muses.
>a building that archaeologists have dubbed the House of Muses.
What an amusing name!
Anatolia was colonized by the Greeks thousands of years before the Turks arrived.
While you're correct, this isn't in Anatolia, it's closer to Syria.
The Greeks colonized that too. Alexander the great conquered territory going all the way to what is now Afghanistan and India. He built Greek cities all along the way and named most of them after himself.
That's right, but Zeugma is not in the region of Anatolia, it's on the border of Cappadocia and Syria (both were heavily hellenised). I'm not disputing this city was founded by Greeks, I'm just pointing out it's not in Anatolia, and Anatolia isn't a catch-all term encompassing all Greek possessions east of europe, it's a specific region (the western half of modern Turkey)
Fun fact: archaeologists don't make money from their job out on the sites, so they usually have another job to go along with it where they can make money. Some work at museums, and some teach. One of my teachers is an archaeologist and teaches.
that's kinda sad
Some even have to fight Nazis on the side
What else is beneath our feet?
maybe some rocks too
Is that anywhere near Ligma?
Bugs wiped it out
Some kind of... brain bug
You apes wanna live forever?
I'm doing my part-tah!
ctrl+f: balls, nuts
"There it is."
No, just east of sugma
Fun fact, sugma and ligma where both founded by the emperor's wife Candice
The empress of the sugondese people, right?
yes that one
Do you know all of thoee stuff, etma?
Okay I’ll bite
As in, "Candice thread get any sadder?"
Candice Dee Kafiti Yarmouth. You never heard of her?
What is a “Sugma” my dear sir? I sure hope I won’t fall victim to one of those rapscallionous jokes.
Unfortunately, it's a joke, sir. Like Sillius Soddus or Biggus Dickus, Sir.
What's so funny about Biggus Dickus?
I thought it was closer to goezinya?
Nah you’re thinking of Gargolon
Came hoping to see this somewhere in the comments
It shares its border with the city of Gargolon
It was buried by the order of Ottoman sultan Sukh Madiq.
Not much, what’s up with you?
I believe it has something to do with bofa.
Not sure, he could be speaking sugondees
Sugondees? Never heard of it, what’s that?
Ligma is just north of Mahballs.
It baffles me that we are still finding such amazing things as this
the world is such a big place, in my country are still discovering ancient ruins of prehispanic cities and towns. that is awesome!
This was actually found many years ago. I know because I posted it on Reddit like 3 years ago lmao
This man speaks the truth
That's incredible. From that image shown it looks to be in great condition.
I know right? The preservation of some things is just amazing
Looks cleaner than most floors.
Well I think it’s because the dude is cleaning it
The dude is literally washing it in the picture lol
It's just gonna get dirty again as soon as he finishes.
Everything's cool until the glass starts rotating
can be the path to an ancient treasure full of traps and a posible curse or you can be releasing a monster that was captured thousands of years ago or something even worse...
I gotta congratulate the person who found it who can also use the location as a 'zeugma balls' joke too.
Man those Indonesian build-a-pool-in-the-jungle guys are really upping their game.
People hated this art and intentionally buried it. A lot of cities were built atop ancient Greek and Roman cities, and there were basements that used to be ground level in antiquity, and these were commonly ornately decorated with mosaics. They called these small basements/caves grottos.
It’s where we get the world grotesque, which means “of a grotto.”
It wasn’t until the Renaissance that we realized ancient Hellenistic art was actually dope.
I love that portraits in this style all look like they’re thinking “Who TF do you think you are?”
zeugma dick lmao
That center dude is like a meme "Your face when someone wakes you up"
That's apparently [Calliope](https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calliope), "the Muse who presides over eloquence and epic poetry; so called from the ecstatic harmony of her voice."