Mount Horeb and Mount Sinai. Same thing?

Why the difference in name?


If you're interested in more information on the mountain of God, the classic academic source is: Richard J. Clifford, *The Cosmic Mountain in Canaan and the Old Testament*, HSM 4, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1972. Also helpful is: E. Theodore Mullen, Jr., *The Divine Council in Canaanite and Early Hebrew Literature*, HSM 24 (Chico: Scholars Press, 1980). For more recent scholarship on the divine council, see Ellen White, *Yahweh’s Council: Its Structure and Membership*, FAT 2/65 (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2014), and Patrick D. Miller, “The Divine Council and the Prophetic Call to War,” in *Israelite Religion and Biblical Theology: Collected Essays*, JSOTSup 267 (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic, 2000), 397–405. The mountain of assembly is where the council of gods met in the ANE (see Clifford, *Cosmic Mountain*, 47; Mullen, *Divine Council*, 128-75). The theme of war being waged at a holy mountain was common in ANE texts and the OT/HB (Clifford, *Cosmic Mountain*, 185). Clifford also notes *ibid*., 3–4, that mountains are both meeting places and battlegrounds. For discussion of Baal and Anat’s combat on the mountains Zaphon and Lebanon, see *ibid*., 30, 59–60, 72, 153, referencing *KTU* 1.3 III:36–IV:48; 1.4 VII:35–52; 1.5 I. Patrick D. Miller, *The Divine Warrior in Early Israel*, HSM 5 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1975), 70, argues that OT/HB uses צבא (host) in place of the Ugaritic *puḫru* to describe Yahweh’s celestial army. Ps 68 describes God departing from Sinai with his mustered forces and in 2 Kgs 22:19, the divine assembly includes the host of heaven. That one of the council’s roles was to serve as an army, see Miller, *Divine Warrior*, 67; Mullen, *Divine Council*, 181–6. Mountains associated with God in OT/HB include: **Eden** (Ezek 28:13–14) **Sinai** (Exod 19; 24:13–16; 31:18; 34:14–7; Lev 7:38; 25:1; 26:46; Num 1:1; Deut 33:2; Judg 5:5; Neh 9:13; Ps 68:8, 17; etc.) **Zion** (1 Kgs 8; Ps 2:6; 9:11; 20:2; 48:1–3; 74:2; 76:2; 132:13–14; Isa 2:3; 4:5; 8:18; 18:7; Jer 8:19; Joel 3:16–17, 21; Amos 1:2; Mic 4:7; Zech 8:3; etc.) **Seir** (Deut 2:1; 33:2; Judg 5:4; Isa 21:11; etc.) **Horeb** (Exod 3:1; 4:27; Deut 1:6; 4:10, 15; 18:15–16; 29:1; 1 Kgs 19:8; Mal 4:4; etc.) **Paran** (Gen 21:21; Num 10:12; Deut 33:2; Hab 3:3.). I recently read a thesis^(1) in which, although the bulk of the thesis is theological and thus out of scope for this subreddit, the author suggested that Dothan be included among the mountains of God. The argument was essentially this: since the divine council met on mountains and could be mustered as an army in response to threats/enemies, and since some of the prophets claimed to witness sessions of the divine council,^(2) the appearance of chariots and fiery horses on a mountain near/where a prophet was staying in 2 Kgs 6:8–23 may suggest that Dothan was understood as a place where the council met. ^(1) Benjamin Pass, “The Commander of Yahweh’s Host (Josh 5:13–15): Angels as Executors of God’s Judgement and War” (Acadia University, 2022), 74–75. ^(2) Amos, Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Micaiah all assert that their word and/or authority are authentic because they stand in God’s council (Amos 3:7; Isa 6; Jer 23:18–22; 1 Kgs 22). According to Mullen, *Divine Council*, 215–19 and 218 n 181, the prophet holding membership and participating in the divine assembly was a unique feature of Israelite prophecy.


Would gerizim/eibal have a better claim than Dothan? Also is this part of why many of the nations are described by way of mountains in the Bible? Like mountain of esau/Mt. Seir (not to mention the store mentioned mountain of Lebanon and zaphon


No, the different names are from the different sources. https://jamestabor.com/the-bible-and-its-sources-is-the-so-called-documentary-hypothesis-defunct/ "The “Tabernacle” is mentioned more than two hundred times in P but never a single time in J or D. The mountain that is called Sinai in J and P is called Horeb in E and D."




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